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Parvovirus B19 In Adults Symptoms

Human parvovirus is present in the nasal mucus, spit or saliva. The virus can be spread through airborne droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes. It may also spread through blood or contaminated blood products. Pregnant women who have been infected with parvovirus can spread the virus to the fetus through the placenta.

parvovirus b19 in adults symptoms

Parvovirus is usually self-limiting, which means it will disappear on its own. For children and adults who are generally in good health, no treatment is necessary. However, you may want to try the following:

In most children, parvovirus infection is mild and needs little treatment. But in some adults, the infection can be serious. Parvovirus infection in some pregnant women can lead to serious health problems for the fetus. The infection is also more serious for people with some kinds of anemia or who have a compromised immune system.

Adults don't usually develop the slapped-cheek rash. Instead, the most noticeable symptom of parvovirus infection in adults is joint soreness, lasting days to weeks. Joints most commonly affected are the hands, wrists, knees and ankles.

Generally, you don't need to see a doctor for parvovirus infection. But if you or your child has an underlying condition that may increase the risk of complications, make an appointment with your doctor. These conditions include:

Human parvovirus infection is most common among elementary school-age children during outbreaks in the winter and spring months, but anyone can become ill with it anytime of the year. It spreads from person to person, just like a cold, often through breathing, coughing and saliva, so it can spread through close contact between people and hand-to-hand contact.

There's no vaccine to prevent human parvovirus infection. Once you've become infected with parvovirus, you get lifelong immunity. You may reduce the chances of getting an infection by washing your hands and your child's hands often, not touching your face, avoiding people who are ill, and not sharing food or drinks.

Parvovirus B19 infects only humans. You can have a range of symptoms depending on your age and overall health. About two out of 10 people who get infected with this virus will have no symptoms. Others may have only mild, rash illness.

Parvovirus B19 spreads through respiratory secretions, such as saliva, sputum, or nasal mucus, when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Parvovirus B19 can also spread through blood or blood products. A pregnant woman who is infected with parvovirus B19 can pass the virus to her baby. Any pregnant woman who may have been exposed to parvovirus B19 should contact their obstetrician or healthcare provider as soon as possible.

Your healthcare provider can do a blood test to determine if you are susceptible or possibly immune to parvovirus B19 infection or if you were recently infected. This is not a routine test but can be performed in special circumstances. Talk to your healthcare provider. The blood test may be particularly helpful for pregnant women who may have been exposed to parvovirus B19 and are suspected to have fifth disease. Any pregnant woman who may have been exposed to parvovirus B19 should contact their obstetrician or healthcare provider as soon as possible.

Background and objectives: The clinical features of parvovirus B19 infection in adult patients have not been well described. The aim of this prospective study was to clarify the clinical features of adult patients with parvovirus B19 infection in primary care settings.

Methods: The study subjects were adults over age 18 years who had visited one primary care clinic over a period of one year. They were chosen if they had at least two of the following three symptoms: edema, joint pain, and rash, and if they had contact with children with erythema infectiosum. The diagnosis was confirmed if anti-parvovirus B19 antibodies were identified. The process of these symptoms was recorded until they resolved.

Results: Twenty patients met the inclusion criteria, and 14 (70%) patients were diagnosed with parvovirus B19 infection. The 14 adult patients consisted of two men and twelve women ranging from 33 to 63 years (median, 38 years). The patients consisted of two groups. In the first group, they presented with the first phase of infection showing symptoms such as malaise, muscle pain, and fever, and in the second phase presented with edema, rash, and joint pain that developed within two days of the first phase. In the second group, the first and second phases were clearly separated.

Conclusions: Parvovirus B19 infection in adults can be efficiently diagnosed in primary care settings by observing clinical symptoms such as edema, joint pain, and rash, and by asking patients about their contact with children who have erythema infectiosum.

Fifth disease is a mild rash illness caused by parvovirus B19. It is more common in children than adults. A person usually gets sick with fifth disease within 14 days after getting infected with parvovirus B19. This disease, also called erythema infectiosum, got its name because it was fifth in a list of historical classifications of common skin rash illnesses in children.

You may also have painful or swollen jointsPeople with fifth disease can also develop pain and swelling in their joints. This is called polyarthropathy syndrome. It is more common in adults, especially women. Some adults with fifth disease may only have painful joints, usually in the hands, feet, or knees, and no other symptoms. The joint pain usually lasts 1 to 3 weeks, but it can last for months or longer. It usually goes away without any long-term problems.

Fifth disease is usually mild for children and adults who are otherwise healthy. But for some people, parvovirus B19 infection can cause serious health complications, such as chronic anemia that requires medical treatment.

Fifth disease is usually mild and will go away on its own. Children and adults who are otherwise healthy usually recover completely. Treatment usually involves relieving symptoms, such as fever, itching, and joint pain and swelling.

  • processing.... Drugs & Diseases > Pediatrics: General Medicine Parvovirus B19 Infection Clinical Presentation Updated: Oct 11, 2019 Author: David J Cennimo, MD, FAAP, FACP, FIDSA, AAHIVS; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD more...

  • Share Email Print Feedback Close Facebook Twitter LinkedIn WhatsApp webmd.ads2.defineAd(id: 'ads-pos-421-sfp',pos: 421); Sections Parvovirus B19 Infection Sections Parvovirus B19 Infection Overview Background

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Further Inpatient Care Transfer Deterrence/Prevention Complications Prognosis Patient Education Show All Questions & Answers Media Gallery References Presentation History Common symptoms of parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection include a mild nonspecific prodromal illness that may consist of fever (15-30% of patients), malaise, headache, myalgia, nausea, and rhinorrhea; typically beginning 5-7 days after initial infection. [8, 28] These symptoms correspond to the initial viremia and dissipate in 2-3 days. [5] Approximately 1 week later, a bright red macular exanthem appears on the cheeks and is often associated with circumoral pallor. [9, 5] A diffuse maculopapular rash can appear 1-4 days later and fades to a lacy erythematous rash, which may be pruritic and may spread gradually toward the distal extremities. Most seropositive patients have no history of this classic biphasic illness. The clinical symptoms widely vary, and the classic "slapped cheek" rash is much more common in young children. [8] More recently, parvovirus B19 has been recognized as a cause of atypical rash illness in adults, [29] as well as a host of less common manifestations. [30]

The cause of parvovirus B19 rash is believed to be immunologically mediated, and the rash corresponds to the appearance of immunoglobulin M (IgM) in the serum. This signals the clearance of viremia. Recurrence of the rash (lasting for weeks or more) may be provoked by sunlight, stress, or exercise and does not indicate relapsed infection. [2, 5]

Alternatively, parvovirus B19 infection may manifest with purpuric rash, erythema multiforme, or pruritus of the soles of the feet. Parvovirus B19 may cause a papular-purpuric "gloves-and-socks" syndrome (PPGSS), which manifests as an erythematous exanthem of the hands and feet with a distinct margin at the wrist and ankle joints. It is mainly seen in young adults and initially presents with painful erythema and induration of the hands and feet. Less commonly, the penis, vulva, thighs, cheeks, and elbows may be involved. This syndrome occurs exclusively with parvovirus B19 infection and is an uncommon manifestation. The skin changes may progress to petechia, purpura, and bulla with skin sloughing. PPGSS usually resolves in 1-3 weeks without scaring. [5, 6, 31, 32, 33]

Transient small joint arthropathy may be the main clinical presentation of parvovirus B19 in adults. Most have some joint pain, but few progress to frank arthritis. In general, the timing of joint symptoms coincide with the expected onset of rash in children. Arthritis usually improves in 1-3 weeks but may persist for months. Parvovirus B19 infection is not associated with chronic degenerative arthritis. [8, 2, 6] Less than 10% of children experience arthropathy; however, in those who do, the knees are most commonly involved. [9]


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